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Anatomy Atlases: Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 3. Middle Thorax (Heart and Lungs)

Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 3. Middle Thorax (Heart and Lungs)

Plate 3.4

Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D., Adel K. Afifi, M.D., Jean J. Jew, M.D., and Paul C. Reimann, B.S.
Peer Review Status: Externally Peer Reviewed

Plate 3.4

Upper Left Quadrant

Lower Left Quadrant

Lower Right Quadrant

Upper Right Quadrant

1. Right coronary a.
2. Internal thoracic a. and v.
3. Lung, right upper lobe, anterior segment and right atrium
4. Superior vena cava
5. Pleural cavity
6. Pectoralis major m.
7. Rib 4
8. Pectoralis minor m.
9. Pulmonary v.
10. Rib 5
11. Serratus anterior m.
12. Mediastinal Iymph nodes, bronchial

13. Lung, right upper lobe, lateral segment
14. Pulmonary v.
15. Thoracodorsal neurovascular bundle
16. Bronchus
17. Long thoracic nerve and lateral thoracic a. and v.
18. Mediastinal Iymph node
19. Intercostal neurovascular bundle
20. Inferior angle of scapula
21. Insertion of inferior edge of serratus anterior m.
22. Left atrial myocardium
23. Lung, right lower lobe, superior segment, and esophagus
24. Iliocostalis m.
25. Radiate ligament
26. Costovertebral articulation; azygos v. and thoracic duct
27. Vertebra, T8
28. Trapezius m.

29. Thoracic spinal cord
30. Interspinous ligament
31. Intervertebral disk, T8
32. Multifidus m
33. Radiate ligament
34. Rib 8, costotransverse articulation, tubercle of left rib and neck of rib
35. Thoracic aorta
36. Lung, left lower lobe, superior segment, and aortic plexus and sympathetic trunk
37. Scapula, inferior angle
38. Serratus anterior m.
39. Rib 7
40. Latissimus dorsi m.
41. Left lower bronchus
42. Thoracodorsal a., v., and nerve
43. Pulmonary v.
44. Rib 6

45. Lung, left lower lobe, superior segment
46. Left lung, oblique fissure
47. Lung, left upper lobe, upper division, apical posterior segment, and bronchiole
48. Lung, left upper lobe, upper division, anterior segment
49. Left coronary a.
50. Pericardiacophrenic a. and phrenic nerve
51. Left atrium
52. Parietal pericardium
53. Anterior interventricular a. and v.
54. Epicardium
55. Anterior mediastinal fat and pulmonary a., origin
56. Semilunar valve, segments and aortic sinus (of Valsalva, of Petit)
57. Sternum, body

This section passes through the eighth thoracic vertebra (27) and grazes the eighth intervertebral disk (31). It cuts the eighth rib (34) and a costovertebral articulation or joint on the right side (26) and grazes the costotransverse joint (34) on the left side. It cuts the body of the sternum (57) in the midline.

The anterior mediastinum is represented by a small collection of fat (55).

The middle mediastinum contains the heart, and a number of its parts can be identified: semilunar valve components (tricuspid) and the aortic sinus (of Valsalva and of Petit) (56), the origin of the pulmonary artery (55), epicardium (54), anterior interventricular artery and vein (53), parietal pericardium (52), left atrium (51), left coronary artery (49), pulmonary vein (9, 14, 43), left atrial myocardium (22), superior vena cave (4), right atrium (3), and right coronary artery (1).

The posterior mediastinum contains the descending (thoracic) aorta (35), azygos vein and thoracic duct (26), the esophagus (23), mediastinal lymph nodes (18), and the aortic plexus and sympathetic trunk (36).

On the left side, the following bronchopulmonary segments have been indicated: left upper lobe, upper division, anterior (48); left upper lobe, upper division, apical posterior (47); left lower lobe, superior (45); and left lower lobe, superior (36).

On the right side, the following bronchopulmonary lymph segments have been indicated: right lower lobe, superior (23); right upper lobe, lateral (13); and right upper lobe, anterior (3).

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