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Anatomy Atlases: Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 5. Lower Thorax (Lungs) and Abdomen

Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 5. Lower Thorax (Lungs) and Abdomen

Plate 5.4

Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D., Adel K. Afifi, M.D., Jean J. Jew, M.D., and Paul C. Reimann, B.S.
Peer Review Status: Externally Peer Reviewed

Plate 5.4

Upper Left Quadrant

Lower Left Quadrant

Lower Right Quadrant

Upper Right Quadrant

1. Rectus abdominis m.
2. Ribs 6 and 7
3. Diaphragm
4. Portal v.
5. Liver, caudate lobe
6. Intercostal neurovascular bundle
7. Intercostal mm.

8. Liver, right lobe
9. Hepatic v.
10. Rib 9
11. Inferior vena cava
12. Latissimus dorsi
13. Rib 10
14. Suprarenal gland, central v.
15. Lung, right lower lobe posterior basal segment
16. Perirenal fat and superior surface of right kidney
17. Rib 11
18. Omental bursa
19. Azygos v.
20. Vertebra, T11
21. Multifidus m.
22. Thecal sac and spinal cord

23. Supraspinous ligament
24. Anterior longitudinal ligament
25. Thoracic aorta
26. Longissimus m.
27. Hemiazygos v. and lesser splanchnic nerve and sympathetic trunk
28. Pleural space and greater splanchnic nerve
29. Diaphragm
30. Lung, left lower lobe posterior basal segment
31. Inferior phrenic a.
32. Splenic v. in hilum of spleen
33. Spleen
34. Diaphragm
35. Celiac Iymph nodes

36. Stomach
37. Gastrocolic ligament
38. Rib 8
39. Colon, descending
40. Rib 7
41. Colon, transverse
42. Liver, left lobe
43. Ribs 6 and 7
44. Superior epigastric a.
45. Xiphoid process, tip and fat

This section passes through the lower third of the eleventh thoracic vertebra (20). It cuts ribs 11 (17), 10 (13), 9 (10), 8 (38), 7 (40, 43), and 6 (43) and the xiphoid process (45), which makes its last appearance in this section.

This section is still dominated by the liver (8). The left lobe of the liver (42) is diminishing in size, and the caudate lobe (5) is well defined. The transverse colon (41), stomach (36), and spleen (33) fill the left side of the abdomen. The hilum of the spleen contains the splenic vein (32), but the artery is out of the plane of section.

The right suprarenal gland (14) and the superior surface of the right kidney (16) make their first appearance.

The superior epigastric artery (44), inferior phrenic artery (31), hemiazygos vein (27), thoracic aorta (25), azygos vein (19), inferior vena cave (11), hepatic vein (9), and portal vein (4) are all identified in this section.

The greater (28) and lesser (27) splanchnic nerves (preganglionic sympathetic) are found.

The gastrocolic (37), anterior longitudinal (24), and supraspinous (23) ligaments may be seen.

Celiac Iymph nodes (35) may be found between the stomach (36) and the caudate lobe of the liver (5).

The thoracic cavity (28) contains small portions of lung, which make their final appearance in this section: left lower lobe posterior basal (30) and right lower lobe posterior basal (15).

Two of the three divisions of the erector spinae muscle are identified in this cut: longissimus (26) and multifidus (21). Other muscles include the diaphragm (3,29), latissimus dorsi (12), intercostal muscles (7), and rectus abdominis (1).

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