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Anatomy Atlases: Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 5. Lower Thorax (Lungs) and Abdomen

Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 5. Lower Thorax (Lungs) and Abdomen

Plate 5.5

Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D., Adel K. Afifi, M.D., Jean J. Jew, M.D., and Paul C. Reimann, B.S.
Peer Review Status: Externally Peer Reviewed

Plate 5.5

Upper Left Quadrant

Lower Left Quadrant

Lower Right Quadrant

Upper Right Quadrant

1. Superior epigastric a.
2. Portal v.
3. Diaphragm
4. Ligamentum venosum (Arantius)
5. Portal v.
6. Liver, right lobe

7. Liver, caudate lobe
8. Rib 9
9. Diaphragm
10. Inferior vena cava
11. Latissimus dorsi m.
12. Rib 10
13. Suprarenal gland, right
14. Omental bursa
15. Kidney, right
16. Rib 11
17. Kidney capsular fat, retroperitoneal
18. Inferior phrenic a.
19. Diaphragm
20. Azygos v.
21. Anulus fibrosus, intervertebral disk, T11 T12
22. Zygapophyseal joint
23. Nucleus pulposus, intervertebral disk, T11 T12
24. Denticulate ligament of spinal cord

25. Spinous process, T11
26. Spinal cord
27. Multifidus m.
28. Superior articular process, T12
29. Erector spinae m.
30. Hemiazygos v., greater splanchnic nerve, and thoracic aorta
31. Longissimus m.
32. Costodiaphragmatic recess
33. Inferior suprarenal a.
34. Suprarenal gland, left
35. Inferior phrenic a. and v.
36. Short gastric a. and v.
37. Splenic a. and v.
38. Diaphragm
39. Spleen
40. Celiac lymph nodes
41. Left gastric v.
42. Stomach

43. Accessory spleen (var.)
44. Peritoneal cavity
45. Celiac ganglion
46. Left colic flexure
47. Rib 8
48. Celiac a. and left gastric v.
49. Left gastric v.
50. Rib 7
51. Left gastric a.
52. Colon
53. Musculophrenic a.
54. Rib 6
55. Diaphragm
56. Rectus abdominis m.
57. Liver, left lobe
58. Linea alba and fat

This section passes through the eleventh thoracic intervertebral disk (21, 23), the spinous process of the eleventh thoracic vertebra (25), and the zygapophyseal joint (22) between the eleventh and twelfth thoracic vertebrae. It cuts ribs 11 (16), 10 (12) 9 (8), 8 (47), 7 (50), and 6 (54). The linea alba (58) makes its first appearance and replaces the xiphoid process (previous section) as the anterior midline structure.

The diaphragm (3, 9, 19, 38, 55) is still present as a thin rim of muscle. Its inferior phrenic artery and vein (18, 35) can be identified.

The left suprarenal gland (34) is seen for the first time, and the right suprarenal gland (13) makes its last appearance. Note its position anterior to the kidney (15). The parenchyma of the right kidney (15) also can be seen for the first time.

The aorta (30) is still in the thoracic cavity because it is seen lying behind the diaphragm. The aorta enters the abdominal cavity in the next cut. The celiac artery (48), the first of the three unpaired abdominal arteries, makes its first appearance.

The right side of the section is dominated by the liver with its large portal veins (2, 5) and inferior vena cave (10). The left (57), caudate (7), and right (6) lobes of the liver can be identified.

The left side of the section still contains the transverse colon (52) anteriorly, the stomach (42) in the central position, and the spleen (39) posteriorly. An accessory spleen (splen accessorius, var.) (43) is located adjacent to the spleen anteriorly.

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