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Anatomy Atlases: Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 5. Lower Thorax (Lungs) and Abdomen

Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 5. Lower Thorax (Lungs) and Abdomen

Plate 5.6

Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D., Adel K. Afifi, M.D., Jean J. Jew, M.D., and Paul C. Reimann, B.S.
Peer Review Status: Externally Peer Reviewed


Plate 5.6

Upper Left Quadrant

Lower Left Quadrant

Lower Right Quadrant

Upper Right Quadrant

1. Celiac a.
2. Superior epigastric a.
3. Costal cartilage 8 and ligamentum venosum
4. Rib 7 and hepatic v.
5. Peritoneal cavity
6. Intercostal mm.
7. Hepatic a.
8. Common bile duct
9. Serratus anterior m.
10. Portal v.

11. Liver, caudate lobe
12. Omental bursa, epiploic foramen (of Winslow)
13. Hepatic v.
14. Latissimus dorsi m.
15. Inferior vena cava
16. Mesenteric Iymph node
17. Renal a., br.
18. Right kidney
19. Longissimus m.
20. Transverse process and vertebra, T12
21. Multifidus m.

22. Spinous process and lumbar spinal cord
23. Basivertebral v. and abdominal aorta (at aortic hiatus of diaphragm)
24. Transverse process and rib 12
25. Diaphragm, left crus
26. Inferior phrenic a.
27. Left kidney, superior surface
28. Suprarenal gland
29. Rib 11
30. Inferior phrenic a.
31. Spleen
32. Splenic a.
33. Splenic v.
34. Rib 10
35. Inferior suprarenal.
36. Mesenteric Iymph node
37. Intercostal neurovascular bundle

38. Rib 9
39. Left gastric v.
40. Stomach
41. Descending colon
42. Rib 8
43. Peritoneal cavity
44. Left gastric a. and v.
45. Rib 7
46. Transverse colon
47. Rectus abdominis m.
48. Linea alba
49. Liver, left lobe


This section passes through the twelfth thoracic vertebra (20) and its transverse process (20), its spinous process (22), and its articulation with the twelfth rib (24). It cuts ribs 11 (29), 10 (34), 9 (38), 8 (3, 42), and 7 (4, 45).

The section passes through the aorta at the aortic hiatus of the diaphragm (23) and is now, and in subsequent sections, properly called the abdominal aorta.

The cut crosses the left suprarenal gland (28) and the superior surface of the left kidney (27). The right kidney (18) is cut just superior to the renal pelvis, which is seen in the next section. On the right side, the transverse colon (46) crosses to the left to join the descending colon (41). The stomach (40) has a position between the colon and the spleen (31). Near the hilum of the spleen the splenic artery (32) and vein (33) may be identified. Within the vertebral body, a basivertebral vein (23) can be seen.

The cut passes through the foramen of Winslow or epiploic foramen (12). The caudate (11) and left (49) lobes of the liver are diminishing in size when compared with the same structures seen in the previous section. The celiac artery (1) and two of its branches, the left gastric (44) and splenic (32) arteries, are seen. The left inferior suprarenal artery (35) has probably arisen from the left renal artery. The inferior phrenic arteries (26, 30) arise from the aorta as the first pair of abdominal arteries. The ligamentum venosum (3) is seen and represents the obliterated fetal ductus venosum.

Although the transverse process (20) of the twelfth thoracic vertebra does not look unusual in this cut, the transverse processes of this vertebra are unique because they possess three tubercles of variable length, position, and size.

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