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Anatomy Atlases: Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 5. Lower Thorax (Lungs) and Abdomen

Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 5. Lower Thorax (Lungs) and Abdomen

Plate 5.7

Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D., Adel K. Afifi, M.D., Jean J. Jew, M.D., and Paul C. Reimann, B.S.
Peer Review Status: Externally Peer Reviewed

Plate 5.7

Upper Left Quadrant

Lower Left Quadrant

Lower Right Quadrant

Upper Right Quadrant

1. Fat
2. Left lobe of liver
3. External oblique m.
4. Superior epigastric a.
5. Ligamentum teres ("obliterated" umbilical v.)
6. Hepatic a.
7. Rib 7
8. Peritoneal cavity
9. Hepatic a.
10. Rib 8
11. Lymph nodes
12. Gallbladder
13. Portal v.

14. Rib 9
15. Portal v.
16. Diaphragm and liver, papillary process of caudate lobe
17. Rib 10 and inferior vena cava
18. Latissimus dorsi m.
19. Serratus posterior inferior m. and spermatic a. and v.
20. Rib 11
21. Perirenal fat
22. Diaphragm, right crus and Iymph node
23. Right kidney
24. Iliocostalis m.
25. Rib 12
26. Longissimus dorsi m.
27. Dorsal root ganglion
28. Spinal nerve roots
29. Multifidus m.
30. Spinal cord

31. Spinous process, T12
32. Vertebra, T12
33. Intervertebral disk, T12, and abdominal aorta
34. Abdominal aortic plexus
35. Diaphragm, left crus
36. Rib 12 and diaphragm
37. Perirenal fat
38. Superior polar left renal a. and v. (var.) and celiac ganglion
39. Left kidney
40. Rib 11 and intercostal neurovascular bundle
41. Suprarenal v.
42. Suprarenal gland
43. Serratus posterior inferior m.
44. Splenic a.
45. Splenic v.
46. Pancreas, tail
47. Rib 10
48. Hilus of spleen
49. Spleen
50. Short gastric aa. and w.

51. Diaphragm
52. Rib 9
53. Descending colon
54. Rib 8
55. Stomach
56. Rib 7
57. Transversus abdominis m.
58. Superior epigastric a. and v.
59. Transverse colon
60. Left gastric a.
61. Internal thoracic a. and v.
62. Rectus abdominis m.
63. Left lobe of liver and pancreas, body
64. Linea alba

This section passes through the inferior edge of the twelfth thoracic vertebra (32) and the superior edge of the twelfth intervertebral disk (33). The cut passes through the twelfth (25, 36), eleventh (20, 40), tenth (17, 47), ninth (14, 52), eighth (10, 54), and seventh (7, 56) ribs. The gallbladder (12) is seen for the first time. The falciform ligament and the ligamentum teres (5) can be identified.

The transverse colon (59), descending colon (53), stomach (55), and a small part of the left lobe of the liver (63) are found in the upper right quadrant.

The spleen (49) contains in its vascular hilum (48) the splenic artery (44) and vein (45) and the short gastric blood vessels (50). A superior polar left renal artery and vein (var.) (38), the left kidney (39), the left suprarenal gland (42), and tail of the pancreas (46) fill the lower right quadrant of the section.

The components of the erector spinae muscle are shown: iliocostalis thoracis (24), longissimus dorsi (26), and multifidus (29) muscles. A dorsal root ganglion (27) can be seen in the intervertebral foremen.

The lower left quadrant contains the right kidney (23), right lobe of the liver, papillary process of the caudate lobe of the liver (16), and the portal vein (15).

The upper left quadrant is filled with the right lobe of the liver and the gallbladder (12), and the falciform ligament and ligamentum teres ("obliterated" umbilical vein) can be seen.

Important structures in the center of the plate include the body of the pancreas (63), the hepatic artery (6), inferior vena cave (17), abdominal aorta (33), and the crura (22, 35) of the diaphragm (16, 36, 51), which persists in this section as a thin rim of muscle adjacent to the ribs.

The serratus posterior inferior muscle (19, 43) appears for the first time.

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