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Anatomy Atlases: Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 5. Lower Thorax (Lungs) and Abdomen

Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 5. Lower Thorax (Lungs) and Abdomen

Plate 5.9

Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D., Adel K. Afifi, M.D., Jean J. Jew, M.D., and Paul C. Reimann, B.S.
Peer Review Status: Externally Peer Reviewed


Plate 5.9

Upper Left Quadrant

Lower Left Quadrant

Lower Right Quadrant

Upper Right Quadrant

1. Liver, left lobe
2. Rectus sheath
3. Stomach, antrum
4. Falciform ligament
5. Peritoneal cavity
6. Superior mesenteric w.
7. Superior mesenteric a. and v., br.
8. Gallbladder
9. Common bile duct
10. Duodenum, proximal part
11. Pancreas, uncinate process and pancreatic duct

12. Portal v.
13. Hepatic a. and portal v.
14. Colon, hepatic flexure
15. Inferior vena cava and retroaortic left renal v.
16. Liver and portal v., brs.
17. Visceral and parietal peritoneum
18. Skin and superficial fascia
19. Perirenal fat
20. Serratus posterior inferior m.
21. Rib 12
22. Renal calix
23. Renal pelvis and psoas major m.
24. Erector spinae m.
25. Vertebral body, L1
26. Anulus fibrosus, intervertebral disk
27. Ligamentum flavum
28. Theca with nerve roots (cauda equina)
29. Spinous process, L1

30. Dura mater
31. Spinalis dorsi and multifidus mm.
32. Nucleus pulposus and intervertebral disk, L1
33. Zygapophyseal joint
34. Superior articular process
35. Lumbar v. and longissimus m.
36. Lymph node and abdominal aorta
37. Quadratus lumborum m.
38. Thoracic duct and Iymph nodes
39. Arcuate aa.
40. Intercostal neurovascular bundle
41. Renal cortex
42. Renal medulla
43. Left inferior suprarenal aa. and w.
44. Latissimus dorsi m.
45. Renal a.
46. Retroaortic left renal vein (var.)
47. Rib 11
48. Spleen
49. Peritoneal cavity
50. Intercostal neurovascular bundle
51. Rib 10
52. Descending colon

53. Intercostal mm.
54. Left colic blood vessels
55. Small bowel loops, jejunum
56. Parietal peritoneum
57. Rib 9
58. Middle colic a. and v.
59. Transverse colon
60. Transversus abdominis m.
61. Internal (abdominal) oblique fascia joining rectus sheath
62. Superior mesenteric artery
63. Rectus abdominis m.
64. Linea alba

The section passes through the first lumbar intervertebral disk (32), the spinous process of L1, the zygapophyseal joint (33), and the superior articular process of the second lumbar vertebra (34) and grazes the endplate of the first lumbar vertebra (25).

The left side of the section contains a part of the transverse colon (59), descending colon (52), small bowel loops of jejunum (55), a portion of the spleen (48), and the left kidney (42). Note the dilated splenic vein (46), which may be the result of the anomalous course of the vein between the aorta and vertebral body (retroaortic left renal vein).

In the middle of the section, a portion of the left lobe of the liver (1), antrum of the stomach (3), superior mesenteric artery (62), uncinate process of the pancreas (11), abdominal aorta (36), and the left splenic vein joining the inferior vena cave (15) can be seen. The psoas major (23), quadratus lumborum (37), longissimus (35), spinalis dorsi (31), and multifidus (31) muscles are seen. The theca contains the cauda equina or nerve roots (28). The thoracic duct (38) drains Iymph nodes (38) and carries lymph to the left venous angle (usually), which is formed by the left internal jugular and left subclavian veins. Here the duct joins one of the veins, and the lymph enters the bloodstream.

On the right side, the right lobe of the liver and gallbladder (8), portal vein (12), proximal end of the duodenum (10), uncinate process of the head of the pancreas and bile duct (9), hepatic flexure of the colon (14), and the right kidney are seen.

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