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Anatomy Atlases: Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 5. Lower Thorax (Lungs) and Abdomen

Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 5. Lower Thorax (Lungs) and Abdomen

Plate 5.10

Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D., Adel K. Afifi, M.D., Jean J. Jew, M.D., and Paul C. Reimann, B.S.
Peer Review Status: Externally Peer Reviewed

Plate 5.10

Upper Left Quadrant

Lower Left Quadrant

Lower Right Quadrant

Upper Right Quadrant

1. Mesenteric Iymph node
2. Middle colic v.
3. Transverse colon
4. Pancreas, head
5. Middle colic v.
6. Posterior pancreaticoduodenal a.
7. Gallbladder
8. Duodenum, descending part
9. Ascending colon at hepatic flexure

10. Rib 10
11. Intercostal neurovascular bundle
12. Liver, right lobe
13. Inferior vena cava
14. Rib 11
15. Rib 12
16. Renal capsule and pelvis or proximal ureter
17. Right kidney
18. Iliocostalis m.
19. Quadratus lumborum m.
20. Perirenal fat and psoas major m.
21. Transverse process, L2, and sympathetic trunk
22. Genitofemoral nerve
23. Basivertebral v. and vertebral body, L2
24. Mamillary process, L2, and left retroaortic renal v. (var.)
25. Theca

26. Spinous process, L2
27. Interspinalis m.
28. Multifidus m.
29. Spinal nerve roots, cauda equina
30. Pedicle, L2, and anterior longitudinal ligament
31. Intertransversarium medialis m.
32. Longissimus m.
33 . Intertransverserius lateralis m.
34. Ascending lumbar v.
35. Lumbar fascia, posterior layer
36. Posterior renal fascia and psoas fascia
37. Lumbar fascia, anterior layer
38. Transversalis fascia
39. Sympathetic trunk
40. Transversalis fascia
41. Latissimus dorsi m.
42. Renal aa., brs.
43. Renal sinus and calix
44. Left kidney medulla, pyramid, and pelvis
45. Renal cortex
46. Latissimus dorsi m.
47. Anterior renal fascia and abdominal aorta
48. Inferior mesenteric v.

49. Descending colon
50. Gonadal a. and v.
51. External oblique m.
52. Internal oblique m.
53. Transversus abdominis m.
54. Jejunum
55. Left colic a. and v.
56. Transverse colon
57. Jejunum and jejunal aa.
58. Duodenum, horizontal or inferior part
59. Superior mesenteric v.
60. Jejunal a., br., and superior mesenteric a.
61. Linea alba

This section passes through the body of the second lumbar vertebra (23), and its pedicle (30), mamillary (24), spinous (26), and transverse (21) processes.

On the left side, the transverse (56) and descending colon (49) are seen along with various sections of the jejunum (54). In relation to the descending colon note the left colic artery (55), which arises from the inferior mesenteric artery and supplies the descending colon. The left colic vein is also seen. The left kidney is cut through the renal sinus and calix (43). Note that the renal cortex (45), medulla (44), and pyramid (44) can be readily differentiated from each other. The dilated proximal end of the ureter or pelvis (44) and renal arterial branches (42) are also identified. The anterior (47) and posterior (36) renal fascia, the perirenal capsular fat (20), the renal capsule (16), and the lumbar (37), psoas (36), and transversalis (40) fascia can all be seen.

In the middle of the section, the transverse colon (3), a coil of jejunum (57), jejunal arteries (57, 60), the superior mesenteric artery with a jejunal branch (60), and the superior mesenteric vein (59) can be identified.

Adjacent to the vertebral body, the abdominal aorta (47), inferior vena cave (13), sympathetic nerve trunk (39), and the left renal (retroaortic) vein (24) are seen.

On the right side, the right lobe of the liver (12) is diminishing in size, although the gallbladder (7) remains largely dilated. The ascending colon (9) is at the hepatic flexure; the duodenum (8) is taking a downward (posterior) course and is, in this section, immediately adjacent to the ascending colon (8, 9).

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