Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Appendix: Topography of the Thorax and Abdomen
Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D., Adel K. Afifi, M.D., Jean J. Jew, M.D., and Paul
C. Reimann, B.S.
Peer Review Status: Externally Peer Reviewed
The lowest point of the gallbladder, according to Eycleshymer and Schoemaker, varies from the upper third of the twelfth thoracic vertebra to the upper third of the fourth lumbar vertebra. The average position is at the level of the lower third of the second lumbar vertebra.
The position of the fundus of the gallbladder, when projected on the anterior abdominal wall, is given by Langer and Toldt as the angle formed on the right side by the rectus abdominis muscle and the costal margin. Merkel places it opposite the tip of the ninth right costal cartilage; Joessel, opposite the lower border of the tip of the ninth costal cartilage; Corning, opposite the tip of the eighth costal cartilage; Sobotta, opposite the tip of the ninth or tenth costal cartilage. Morris, Cunningham, and Piersol place it opposite the tip of the ninth costal cartilage. Raynal and Siraud find its fundus immediately below the costal border corresponding in the majority of cases to the anterior cartilaginous extremity of the tenth rib, when the subject is supine. It may be opposite the cartilaginous extremity of the ninth rib, or even opposite that of the eleventh.
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