Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Appendix: Topography of the Thorax and Abdomen
Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D., Adel K. Afifi, M.D., Jean J. Jew, M.D., and Paul
C. Reimann, B.S.
Peer Review Status: Externally Peer Reviewed
The position of the umbilicus varies from the third lumbar disk to the middle third of the fifth lumbar vertebra, with the average position being at the level of the lower third of the fourth lumbar vertebra, according to Eycleshymer and Schoemaker. Corning and Morris place the umbilicus at the level of the third lumbar disk, whereas Cunningham places it at the level of the middle of the fourth lumbar vertebra. The present study finds it at the upper third of the fourth lumbar vertebra.
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