A. Metaphase chromosomes
Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D., Adel K. Afifi, M.D., Paul M. Heidger,
Peer Review Status: Externally Peer Reviewed
Human, peripheral lymphocyte culture,
air-dried trypsin-banded, Giemsa* stain, 2142 x.
68-hour peripheral lymphocyte culture, phytohemagglutinin-stimulated to induce lymphocyte transformation and mitosis.
In A, mitosis has been arrested in metaphase with colchicine, and the chromosomes have been dispersed with hypotonic potassium chloride. Interphase nuclei are seen adjacent to the dispersed chromosomes.
B is an analysis of male chromosomes seen in A. This arrangement of the chromosomes into groups is known as a karyotyping. Note the dark and light areas (bands) that characterize each chromosome. Note the 22 pairs of autosomes (Nos. 1 to 22) and the pair of sex chromosomes (XY in this case). The 22 pairs of chromosomes have been classified on morphological grounds into seven groups (A to G).
The chromosomes seen here are judged to be normal. Abnormal, duplicated, or missing chromosomes can be related to defective somatic and mental development in man.
*Giemsa, 1867-1948, was a German bacteriologist working in Hamburg.
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