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Anatomy Atlases: Atlas of Human Anatomy: Plate 26: Figure 5

Atlas of Human Anatomy

The anterior surface of the spinal cord (in the spinal canal) with the origin and plexus of spinal nerves and the chain of sympathetic ganglia.

Translated by: Ronald A. Bergman, PhD and Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed


Magnified View (via Quicktime VR)

The anterior surface of the spinal cord

a) Petrous portion of the temporal bone.
b) Internal acoustic meatus.
c) Carotid canal.
d) Styloid process.
e) Jugular foramen.
f) External acoustic meatus.
g) Atlas, first cervical vertebra.
h) Cervical vertebra, VII.
i) Thoracic vertebra I.
k) Thoracic vertebral XII.
l) Lumbar vertebra I.
m) Lumbar vertebral V.
n) Sacral bone.
o) Coccygeus.
p) Rib, I., first rib.
q) Rib, XII, last rib.
r) Crest of Iliac bone.
s) m. Sternocleidomastoid.
t) m. Scalenus anterior.
u) m. Scalenus medius.
v) mm. Intercostalis internus.
w) mm. Intercostalis externus.
x) m. Quadratus lumborum.
y) m. Psoas major.
z) m. Internal iliac.

  1. internal carotid artery.
  2. internal jugular vein.
  3. posterior intercostal artery and vein.
  4. pons (Varolii).
  5. Trigeminal nerve (s. divisus or trifacial nerve).
  6. abducens nerve.
  7. facial and acoustic nerves.
  8. glossopharyngeal, vagus, and spinal accessory nerves (pass through the jugular foramen).
  9. spinal accessory nerve (s. accessory Willisii).
  10. vagus nerve (s. pneumogastricus).
  11. hypoglossal nerve.
  12. hypoglossal nerve, descending ramus.
  13. medulla oblongata.
  14. pyramidal decussation.
  15. spinal cord, cervical part.
  16. spinal cord, thoracic part.
  17. conus medullaris.
  18. filum terminale.
  19. cervical nerve I.
  20. cervical nerve VIII.
  21. cervical plexus (formed by the anterior division of the upper cervical nerves).
  22. Brachial plexus (formed by the anterior division of the lower four cervical and first thoracic nerves).
  23. thoracic nerve I.
  24. thoracic nerve XII.
  25. intercostals nerves.
  26. lumbar nerve I.
  27. lumbar nerve V.
  28. Lumbar plexus (formed of the anterior divisions of the 2. - 4).
  29. femoral nerve (continuation of lumbar plexus).
  30. iliohypogastric (external and internal rami).
  31. ilioinguinal nerve.
  32. anterior lateral femoral cutaneous nerve.
  33. obturator nerve.
  34. sacral nerve I.
  35. sacral nerve V.
  36. sacral plexus (formed the anterior roots of 5th lumbar and 1st through 5th sacral nerves. Sacral nerves decrease in the sciatic plexus [s. ischiaticus plexus] and pudendorectal plexus [s. pudendo-haemorrhoidalis plexus].
  37. coccygeal nerves.
  38. sympathetic nerves, pars gangliosa.
  39. superior cervical ganglion (joined with the cervical plexus).
  40. middle cervical ganglion (joined with the brachial plexus).
  41. inferior cervical ganglion (joined with the brachial plexus).
  42. thoracic ganglia (joined with the intercostals nerves).
  43. lumbar ganglia (joined with the lumbar nerves).
  44. sacral ganglia (joined with the sacral nerves).
  45. coccygeal ganglia (joined with both ganglion chains (right and left sides of body).
  46. between right and left sides, the sacral sympathetic nerves are joined.
  47. sciatic nerve (s. ischiaticus nerve).
  48. inguinal nerve.
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