Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II: Cardiovascular System: Arteries: Upper Limb
Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD
Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed
The lateral thoracic may be replaced by or it may replace the thoracodorsal.
On rare occasions it gives rise to the ulnar artery, and itself may be a branch of the subscapular (8%, Poynter).
In about 24% of individuals the lateral thoracic is doubled.
Poynter found the distribution to the intercostal spaces to be irregular; the second space received no supply in 15% and the axillary sent another branch to supply this intercostal space in 17%.
See references listed under Axillary (artery)and Supreme thoracic, also -
Kropp, B.N. (1951) The lateral costal branch of the internal mammary artery. J. Thoracic Surg. 21:421-425.
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