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Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II: Cardiovascular System: Arteries: Head, Neck, and Thorax: Thyroidea Ima (Of Neubauer) Artery

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II: Cardiovascular System: Arteries: Head, Neck, and Thorax

Thyroidea Ima (of Neubauer) Artery

Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed

This artery occurs in from 4 to 10% and was briefly discussed with the brachiocephalic trunk. The frequency is not certain but appears to be about 10% according to most authors but Adachi found this artery in only 1 of 271 cadavers (0.4%).

Thyroidea ima arises from any one of the following sources: aortic arch, brachiocephalic trunk, common carotid, internal thoracic, pericardiacophrenic, subclavian, thyrocervical trunk, inferior thyroid, or transverse scapular artery. It usually but not always arises from the right side.

Gruber analyzed the origin of this artery in 90 reported cases: in 12 cases it arose from the aortic arch, in nine from between the brachiocephalic and left carotid, in two from between the right subclavian and right carotid, in one from between the left carotid and subclavian, in 39 from the right brachiocephalic, in 16 from the carotid, in six from the internal thoracic, in three from the right subclavian, in one from the right inferior thyroid, and in one from the transverse scapular artery.

The origin of this artery from the brachiocephalic trunk is rare but has been cited by Haller, Neubauer, Huber, Quain (7 times), Gray, Henle in addition to those cited by Gruber (39 cases) above.

This artery usually gives rise to thymic arteries.

Yamasaki reported the arterial system of the thyroid gland and the thymus, according to the usual textbook description actually had a low frequency. In fetuses it was 2.3% and in adults it was 20.8%, the study was based upon 43 fetuses and 77 adults. The difference with the textbook description is believed due to the variation in the so-called constant arteries and the variability of inconstant arteries. Among the variable arteries, the middle thymothyroid artery showed the highest frequency, 44.2%, in fetuses and 27.3% of adults. The superior thymic artery and the middle thymic artery were also abundant, being 33.7%, 18.8% and 32.6%, 14.3% in fetuses and adults respectively. On the other hand, the supreme thymic artery and the the thyroid ima artery arising from the internal thoracic artery were extremly rare. If the thyroid and thymic arteries arising from the aortic arch or brachiocephalic trunk are considered to be almost constant, the frequencies of the textbook-type increase to 14% in fetuses and 41.6% in adults.

The thyreoidea ima artery may come from the innominate brachiocephalic trunk in common with the right common carotid and right subclavian or in common with both carotids and the right subclavian arteries.

The thyreoidea Ima artery may arise from the common carotid.

Image 46, Image 187, Image 188, Images 201, Image 236B, Image 303, Image 532


Adachi, B. (1928) Das Arteriensystem der Japaner. Kenkyusha Press, Kyoto.

Anson, B.J., Ed. (1966) Morris's Human Anatomy, 12th ed. The Blakiston Division, Mc-Graw Hill Book Company. New York.

Beaumanoir (de Brest), -. (1882) Preséntation de pièces anatomiques: artère thyroïdienne de Neubauer. Bull. de la Soc. Anatomique de Paris LVII(6):316-317.

Bergman, R.A., Thompson, S.A., Afifi, A.K. and F.A. Saadeh. (1988) Compendium of Human Anatomic Variation: Catalog, Atlas and World Literature., Urban & Schwarzenberg, Baltimore and Munich.

Broca, -. (1850) Lésion inevitable dans l'operation de la trachéotomie. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris Ann. XXV(3) (1850):84.

Dufour, -., Rigaud, -., Cabanie, -. and -. LaFont. (1954) Contribution a l'etude des artéres thyroidennes. Assoc. Anatomistes, Comptus Rendus. 39:201-207.

Fontan, M.C. (1911) Anomalie artèrielle de la région cervicale inferieure. L'écho Médical du Nord, Lille 15:361.

Gruber, -. (1845) Über die Anomalien der Arteria thyreoidea ima (Neubaueri) und der Arteria cricothyreoidea, in ihrer wichtigen Beziehung zu einigen chirurg. Operationen. Neuer anomaler Kehlkopfs-Muskel. Medicinische Jahrbucher des K. K. Oesterreichischen Staates 52:131-156.

Gruber, W. (1845) Über die Anomalien der Arteria thyreoidea ima (Neubaueri) und der Arteria cricothyreoida, in ihrer wichtigen Beziehung zu einigen chirurg. Operationen. Neuer anomaler Kehlkopfs-muskel. Medicinische Jahrbucher Des K. K. Osterreichischen Staates. 52:129-300.

Gruber, W. (1867) Ueber die threoidea ima. Arch. f. Pathologische Anatomie u. Physiol. u. f. Klinische Medicin 45(3):445.

Gruber, W. (1872) über die arteria thyroidea ima. Arch. Path. Anat. Physol. Klin. Med. 54:445-484.

Henle, J. (1868) Handbuch der Systematischen Anatomie des Menschen. Von Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn, Braunschweig.

Hilleret, -. (1845) Brachio-cephalic tronc naît artère trhyroïdienne inférieure, dite arteries de Neubaur. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris XX(2):40.

Labougle, J. (1888) Note sur une artère thymique provenant de l'artère thyroïdienne moyenne de Neubauer. Journal de Medecine de Bordeaux et du Sud-Ouest 32:367-368.

Lachi, P. (1879) Di alcune varietà anatomiche. L'Imparziale 19:365-372.

Latarjet, A. Testut's Traite D'Anatomie Humaine, 9th ed. G. Doin & Cie., Paris.

Lauth, E.A. (1830) Anomalies dans la distribution des artères de l'homme. Mém. Soc. d'hist.-natur. Strasb., Strausbourg 1:43-64.

Mada, S., Hisatomi, T., Kawahira, K. and T. Matsuo. (1955) über die A. thyroidea ima des Japaners in Kyushu. J. Kurume Med. Assoc., Kurume 18:1128-1132.

Nida, S. and M. Yamasaki. (1984) The anatomical consideration of the double thyroid ima artery. Acta Anat. Nippon., Tokyo 59:9-17.

Patti, M. (1934) L'arteria tiroidea ima nel neonato. Osservazioni anatomiche. Monitor. Zool. Ital., Firenze 45:18-23.

Poulhes, J., Hemous, G. and P. Metreau. (1954) La distribution des artères thyroidennes. Assoc. Anatomistes, Comptes Rendus. 41:478-488.

Pratt, G.W. (1916) The thyroidea ima artery. J. Anat. Physiol. 50:239-240.

Rogers, L. (1930) The thyroid arteries considered in relation to their surgical importance. J. Anat. 64:50-61.

Shepherd, F.J. (1889) Thyroidea ima and double superior thyroid artery. Medical News, Philadelphia 1889:306.

Shimizu, H. (1951) Study on the A. thyreoidea ima of fetus. J. Tokyo Med. Coll., Tokyo 9:51-55.

Stewart, J.D. (1932) Circulation of the human thyroid. Arch. Surg. 25:1157-1165.

Varaglia, S. (1901) Sur une artère thyréoïdienne inferior accessorie. Arch. Ital. Biol. 36:348.

Versari, R. (1897) Le arterie timiche nell'uomo ed in altri mammiferi. Loro rapporti colle arterie tiroidee. Boll. Soc. Lancisiana Osp. Rome., Roma 1764-82.

Yamasaki, M. (1989) Studies on the thyroid and thymic arteries of Japanese Adults and fetuses. Anat. Anz., Jena 169:213-221.

Authors reporting the thyreoidea ima artery arising from the aortic arch.

Neubauer, J.E. (1786) Arteria thyreoidea ima ex arcu aortae producta. Part 4, VIII, page 298-300. Tab. VII, Fig. 2. Exp. Tab. 316-318. Opera Anat. Collect. Ab. G.C. Hinderer, Francofurti et Lipsiae.

Loder, J.C. (1781) De nonnullis arteriarum varietatibus. Handbuch d. Menschlichen Anat., Bd. 3., Seite 152, Note 1. Halle u. Berlin. 1817.

Meckel, J. Fr. (1816) (Thyroidea ima replaces inferior thyroid) Handbuch d. Pathol. Anat., Bd. 2. Abth. 1., S. 12., Leipzig.

Portal, A. (1804) (Thyreoida ima als 4. stamm des Arcus aortae) Cours d'Anat. Méd., Tome III, 4, p. 155. An. XII, Paris.

Quain, R. (1839) (Thyreoida ima may arise from the aortic arch), Part 8, page 24. The Surgical Anatomy of the Arteries of the Human Body. London, 1844. Atlas folio Pl. VII, Fig. 9, No. 7.

Thiloco, H. (1804) Von einer missgestalteten Schilddrüse. S. 172. Beschr. Anat.-Pathol. Gegenstände, Gotha.

Velpeau, A.A.L.M. (1826) (Thyreoidea ima arises from the aortic arch more often than from the innominate artery.) Abhandl. d. Chirurg. Anat., Abth. 1, S. 196, Weimar. Traité Compl. D'Anat. Chir. du Corps Humain, 3rd Ed., p. 132. Bruxelles (1834).

The following authors reported the thyreoidea ima artery arising from brachiocephalic artery as a common trunk with the right common carotid and right subclavian or as a common trunk with both carotids and the right subclavian arteries:

Blandin, P.F. (1834) Traité d'Anat. Topgr., 2nd ed., p. 196, Paris.

Burns, A. (1811) (Illustration) Observations on the Surgical Anatomy of the Health and Neck. Edinburgh, German Edition, 1821, Halle, p. 8, seite 215. Note (**, p. 366.

Erdmann, C. (1772) Descr. Anat. Arteriae Innominatae et thyreoideae Imae. Diss. Ab. Aug., Praes. J.E. Neubauer, Jena.XII Oct. 1772.

Führer, -. (1857) Handbuch d. Chir., part 8, Tab. IX, No. 2. Berlin.

Gruber, W. (1815) Ueber die Anomalien der Arteria threoidea ima und der Arteria crico-tryreoidea (mit 8 figuren). Medic. Jahrb. d. K. K. Oesterr. Staates. Bd. 52, S. 132-135, 139, Fig. 1 u. 2.

Gruber, W. (1845) Ueber die Anomalien der Arteriea thyreoidea ima und der Arteriea crico-thyreoidea, in ihrer wichtigen Beziebung zu einigen chirurgischen Operationen (mit 8 figuren). S. 133. Oesterr. Medic. Jahrbücher Bd. 52, Wien.

Haller, A. (1756) (Illustration) Icon. Anat., Fasc. VIII, Fol.p. 60. Goettingae.

Harrison, R. (1839) The Surgical Anatomy of the Arteries of the Human Body, 4th ed., p. 23. Dublin.

Huber, J.J. (1777) Observ. de arcus aortae ramis, de arteria thyreoidea quinta s. supernummeria, deque vicinis bis quibusdam arteries aliis. Acta Helvet. Vol. VIII, p. 83, Basileae.

Hyrtl, J. (1860) Oesterr. Zeitschrift f. Pract. Heilkunde. S. 324. Wien.

Meckel, J.F. (1816) Handbuch d. Pathol. Anat., Bd 2. Abth. 1., p. 212, Leipzig also Handbuch d Menschlichen Anat. Bd. 3., S. 152. Halle und Berlin.

Münz, M. (1821) Handbuch d. Anat. d. Menschlichen Körpers. 2th., p. 145, 536. T. Landshut. Atlas: Tab XIII, Fig. 6.

Neubauer, C. (1786) De arteria thyreoidea ima rariare arteriae innominate ramo. p. 291-296, Tab VI. Explic. Tab. p. 309-314. Opera Anat. Collecta., Ab G.C. Hinderer. Francofurti et Lipsiae.

Otto, A.W. (1830) Lehrbuch d. Pathol. Anat. Berlin, 1830, S. 307, Note 7.

Quain, R. (1844) The Anatomy of the Arteries f the Human Body. London, 8o. p. 129, (Tabl. No. 293) 140, 144. Atlas, Fol. Pl. 21. Fig. 7, Pl. 23. Fig. 7, 8, 9.

Sömmerring, S.T. (1801) (Illustration, S. 148, Note 1, S. 214) Vom Baue d. Menschlichen Körpers, Frankf. a. M.

Tiedemann, Fr. (1822) Tabl. Art. Corp. Hum., Tab IV, Fig. 11., Exp. Tab. P. 58. Carlruhae.

Velpeau, A.A.L.M. (1826) Abhandl. d. Chir. Anat., Abth. 1., S. 196. Weimar also Bruxelles édition, 1834, p. 132.

Weber, M.S. (1842) Handb. d. Anat. d. Menschl. Körpers, Bd. 2., S. 62, Bonn.

Authors reporting the thyreoidea Ima artery may arise from the common carotid:

Dubrueil, J.M. (1847) Des Anomalies Artérielles. Paris.

Meckel, J. F. (1816) Handb. d. Pathol. Anatomie, Bd. 2., Abth. 1., S. 112., Leipzig.

Meckel, J.F. (1817) Handb. d. Mensch. Anatomie, Bd. 2., S. 151-152. Berlin u. Halle.

Meckel, J.F. (1820) Tab. Anat. Pathol., Fasc. II., Lipsiae.

Nicolai, H.A. (1747) De Directione Vasorum. By Haller. A. Disp. Anat. Select. Vol. 2. Goettingae.

Authors reporting the Thyreoida Ima artery may arise from the Internal Thoracic or Pericardiacophrenic arteries:

Barkow, H.C.L. (1851) Anatomische Abhandlungen, part 4:51. Breslau.

Barkow, H.C.L. (1866) Die Blutgefässe o. Comparative Morphologie d. Menschen u. d. Menschenähnlichen Thiere. Fol. S. 10, Tab V, Fig. 3, Breslau.

Broca, -. (1850) Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris. Ann. 25:84.

Lauth, E.H. (1830) Anomalies dans la Distribution des Artères de l'Homme. Mem. de la Société d'Hist. Nat. de Strasbourg. Paris.

Luschka, H. (1857) Die Brustorgane d. Menschen. Fol. S. 19. Anat. d. Brust d. M. Fol. S. 19, Tübingen.

Luschka, H. (1863) anat. d. Brust. d. M. part 8, S. 204. Tübingen.

Sömmerring, S.T. (1841) Lehre v. d. Gefässen. S. 126. Leipzig.

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