Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II: Cardiovascular System: Veins: Head, Neck, and Thorax
Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD
Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed
It may drain into the vena cava or the azygos.
The two veins may be connected across the sternum in each interspace and the connection with the usual circulatory pattern may be lost on one side, so that both sides terminate in a common trunk.
Grzybiak, M., Szostakiewicz-Sawicka, H. and A. Treder. (1975) Remarks on pathways of drainage from the left upper intercostal spaces in man. Folia Morphol., Warsaw 34:301-313.
See also the general references cited for the Internal Jugular Vein.
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