Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus I: Muscular System: Alphabetical Listing of Muscles: L
The attachments of the components of the longissimus are subject to considerable variation. The costal attachments may be reduced either at the cranial or caudal end of the series; the longissimus cervicis may extend to the tenth or eleventh transverse process, or its slips may be reduced in number. The cranial section may be absent; it has been found divided into two parts. Its slips may be limited to the thorax or to the cervical vertebrae.
Slips detached from longissimus capitis have been observed originating from the transverse process of the atlas, or from the tendon of the cervical part of longissimus going to the atlas, and inserting onto the mastoid process.
Anson, B.J., Ed. (1966) Morris' Human Anatomy,12th ed., The Blakiston Division, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.
Huber, C.G., Ed. (1930) Piersol's Human Anatomy,9th ed., L.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia.
Latarjet, A. (1908) Testut's Traité D'Anatomie Humaine, 9th ed., G. Doin & Cie., Paris.
Schaefer, E.A. Symington, J. and T.H. Bryce. Eds. (1923) Quain's Anatomy, 11th ed., Longmans, Green and Co., London.
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