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Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation - Anatomical Variation | Radiology Anatomy | Anatomy Atlas

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation



Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Emeritus Professor
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology

Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Departments of Pediatrics, Anatomy and Cell Biology, and Neurology

The University of Iowa

Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD
Department of Anatomy Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan

Contributing Computer and Graphics Specialists:
Julie L. Bates
Erin L. Berg
Teresa Ann Knutson Choi
Dawn M. Finney
Robert D. Lelonek, Jr.
Paul C. Reimann

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed
First Published: January 1996
Last Revised: March 24, 2015 - This work is updated continuously.

Table of Contents

Cover Art


"Variability is the law of life," Sir William Osler.

"The human features and countenance, although composed of some ten parts or a little more, are so fashioned that among so many thousands of men there are no two in existence who cannot be distinguished from one another. Book 7, Sect 8."
Pliny the Elder, AD 23-79.

It is important to understand that no two living organisms are structurally or functionally identical - animals or plants!

It is clear that textbook writers and teachers over the centuries, even until today, fail to understand or to transmit to their students the crucial concept that anatomical and physiological diversity and variation is a canon of living organisms. This failure leads to the belief that textbooks are conveying immutable facts with only few anomalous exceptions.

Introduction to the Series

Awards, Reviews and Comments

Muscular System, Opus I

Cardiovascular System, Opus II

Nervous System, Opus III

Endocrine, Gastrointestinal, Genitourinary and Respiratory Systems, Opus IV

Skeletal System, Opus V

Listing of Media

Photographs of the Authors

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Anatomy Atlases is curated by Michael P. D'Alessandro, M.D. and Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D.

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