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Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus I: Muscular System: Alphabetical Listing of Muscles: S: Stapedius

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus I: Muscular System: Alphabetical Listing of Muscles: S

Stapedius

Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed
Middle ear variations have a reported incidence of about 5.6% (28/500 temporal bones). This muscle may be doubled or absent., or its tendon may fail to develop. Ectopic muscle rests were found in 19/500 bones near the facial nerve and are believed to be derived from mesenchyme originating from the hyostapedial ligament.

Syn.: m. Pyramido-stapéal, Steigbügelmuskel.


References

Anson, B.J., Ed. (1966) Morris' Human Anatomy, 12th ed. The Blakiston Division, McGraw-Hill Book Company.

Henle, J. (1873) Handbuch der Eingeweidelehre des Menschen, in Handbuch der systematischen Anatomie des Menschen. Verlag von Friedrich Viewweg und Sohn, Braunschweig.

Macalister, A. (1875) Observations on the muscular anomalies in the human anatomy. Third series with a catalogue of the principal muscular variations hitherto published. Trans. Roy. Irish Acad. Sci. 25:1-130.

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