Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus IV: Organ Systems
Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD
Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed
The thickness of skin (epidermis and dermis) averages between 1 and 2 mm. It is 3 to 6 mm in the interscapular region, back of the neck, and flexor surfaces of hand and foot. It is less than 0.5 mm over the tympanic membrane and eyelid. The integument is thicker on the posterior or extensor surfaces than on corresponding regions of the anterior or flexor surfaces, with the exception of the hand and foot.
The color of skin is dependent upon intrinsic pigmentation and blood flow. Pigment may be absent (albinism) or generally reduced (partial albinism).
Palmar and dorsal, double finger nails have been reported. There are variations in color, types, and amount (hyper- or hypotrichosis) and distribution of hair. Cutaneous sinuses or fistulas, which open on the skin may be present in the lateral cervical area above the hyoid bone. These may extend to the nasopharynx and they commonly terminate in the area of the external auditory meatus. These are considered anomalies of the first branchial cleft.
Cutaneous horns have been described.
Cutaneous Horn of the Scalp
Preserved Body of an English Philosopher
Anonymous. (1922) Anatomie du vivant. Corne cutanée du cuir chevelu. La Presse Médicale No. 104. 30:2183.
Anson, B.J. ,Ed. (1966) Morris' Human Anatomy, 11th Ed., The Blakiston Division, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.
Charache, H. (1935) Cutaneous horn of the scalp. Am. J. Surg. 29:297-298.
Chase, H.B. (1954) Growth of hair. Physiol. Rev. 34:113-126.
Cox, H.T. (1941) The cleavage lines of the skin. Brit. J. Surg. 29:234-240.
Dupertuis, C.W., Atkinson, W.B. and Elftman. (1945) Sex differences in pubic hair distribution. Hum. Biol. 17:137-142.
Hutchinson, J. (1886) Congenital absence of hair and mammary glands with atrophic condition of the skin and its appendages in a boy whose mother had been almost wholly bald from alopecia areata from the age of six. Medico-Chirurgical Trans. Lond. 69:473-477.
Kalisman, M. , Goldberg, R. and A.G. Ship. (1982) Dorsal skin and fingernails on the volar aspect of the hand: An unusual anatomic deformity. J. Plastic Reconstr. Surg. 69:693-696.
Keret, D. and E. Ger. (1987) Double fingernails on the small digits. J. Hand Surg. 38:99-106.
Pedersen, J. (1942) Hypertrichosis in women. Acta Dermato - Venerol. 23:1-13.
Ptasinska-Urbanska, M. (1970) A rare case of more than fourteen centimeter long cutaneous horn of the hair-covered skin of the head. Folia Morphol, (Warsaw) 29:478-479.
Ptasinska-Urbanska, M. (1971) A rare case of cutis verticis gyrata. Folia Morphol. (Warsaw) 30:127-128.
Roys, C.K. (1907) Cutaneous horns. A report of three cases. Ann. Surg. 46:674-677.
Southwood, W.F.W. (1955) The thickness of skin. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 15:423-429.
Szczesniak-Zarzycka, N. (1967) Studies on the color of eyes and hair in male and female students in the Lubin region. Folia Morphol. (Warsaw) 26:208-215.
Thomas, P.K. and D.G. Ferriman (1957) Variation in facial and pubic hair growth in white women. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop. 15:171-180.
Trotter, M. (1938) A review of the classification of hair. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop. 24:105-126.
Trotter, M. (1939) Classification of hair color. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop. 25:237-260.
Wilson, E. (1844) Account of a horn developed from the human skin: With observations on the pathology of certain disorders of sebaceous glands. Medico-Chirurg. Trans. Lond. 27:52-69.
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