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Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus III: Nervous System: Sympathetic Division: Cardiac Plexus

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus III: Nervous System: Sympathetic Division

Cardiac Plexus

Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed


The nerves that supply the heart usually converge anteriorly toward the lower part of the trachea but may be followed separately to the heart. Cardiac ganglia, varying in size and number, may occur along the cervicothoracic nerves that supply the aorta, pulmonary trunk, and arteries as well as the heart.

Image 73A Image 73B Image 73C Image 73D Image 73E Image 73F


References

Cruveilhier, J. Traité d'Anatomie Descriptive, 3rd ed., G. Doin & Cie., Paris.

Ehrlich, E., Jr. and W.F. Alexander. (1951) Surgical implications of upper thoracic independent sympathetic pathways. Arch. Surg. 62:609-614.

Ellison, J.P. and T.H. Williams. (1969) Sympathetic nerve pathways to the human heart and their variations. Am. J. Anat. 124:149-162.

Henle, J. (1868) Handbuch der Systematischen Anatomie des Menschen. von Friedrich Veweg und Sohn, Baunschweig.

Jackson, C.M., Ed. (1933) Morris' Human Anatomy, 9th ed., P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc., Philadelphia.

Kopsch, F. (1908) Rauber's Lehrbuch der Anatomie des Menschen. Georg Thieme, Leipzig.

Latarjet, A. (1948) Testut's Traité d'Anatomie Humain, 9th ed., G. Doin & Cie., Paris.

Mizeres, N.J. (1963) The cardiac plexus in man. Am. J. Anat. 112:141-151.

Schaefer, E.A., Symington, J. and T.H. Bryce., Eds. (1915) Quain's Anatomy, 11th ed., Longmans, Green, and Co., London.

Smith, R.B. (1971) The occurrence and location of intrinsic cardiac ganglia and nerve plexuses in the human neonate. Anat. Rec. 169:33-40.

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